The Internet of Things (IoT) began in 2009 by IBM, and the wisdom of the earth began to develop. In 2010, China called out to perceive China and first proposed the Chinese name of the Internet of Things. In fact, the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 20 years ago, but limited to the fact that technology communication technology was still immature, so it failed to resonate. By 2010, this issue has been in Europe and America. China, Japan and other countries have set a strategic development area. More and more information reports also list it as an important area for the development of science and technology communication in the next decade. The industry and output value it creates are very large. Many countries are even promoted through the power of the government. However, the United States is mainly driven by the power of industry to promote industrial development. Europe emphasizes the value of social human economy, social progress, etc., but most Asian countries push from the perspective of industry. Derived to consumers.
The concept of the Internet of Things is that every existing item can be exchanged or interconnected through the network. To understand the Internet of Things, we must first understand the trend of the development of the network of science and technology communication, and the background of the Internet of Things. In the past, people came to cooperate with computers. Now you can use the computer center as a cloud. Without time and place restrictions, technology communication devices can provide more computing resources to meet people's needs. Before the term IoT comes out, we use Ubiquitous compuTIng. (Ubiquitous computing) is collectively called.
What is the purpose of "ubiquitous computing"? We call it human central, which provides people-centered applications and services in life. Most of them are represented by a smart city, because smart cities have many kinds of life needs, such as smart home, smart buildings, intelligent transportation. With medical care, etc., these can all be realized in the Internet of Things. The Internet of Things can connect everything that we are interested in in life and provide a valuable application service for human beings.Internet of Things Market / Application Trends
The application of the Internet of Things does not have a strict definition, and it can be included as long as it is driven by the technology of technology communication. If it is narrowly defined, the technology communication application has sensors to collect data and can be sent to the back end for analysis applications. For example, in the case of home smart energy-saving applications, there is a smart socket proposed by a company in the United States, which continuously collects the electricity consumption data of each appliance on the electrical socket and collects it into the cloud, so that the user can check the power consumption status of the appliance through the system. As a reference value for consumers to use electrical appliances to achieve power saving purposes.
Another example is a smart health toothbrush. When the user uses the smart toothbrush, the sensor on the toothbrush begins to collect the personal brushing condition and returns it to the system, allowing the user to view the brushing condition through the data, where it needs to be strengthened. This application is very helpful in encouraging children to brush their teeth and is also helpful for children's dental care.
There are also vending machines that judge the age of the shopper. In addition to selling, the machine can actively recommend items of the age group, and even pay through NFC mobile phones. In addition, vending machines can also recommend personal preferences, and further provide information on which items can be purchased at which vending machines. An example is Smart Park, which provides a smart bracelet that combines wearable devices and IoT technology. It enters the user's basic data in a smart bracelet and has tickets, passes and credit card functions. Walking on the road, if Mickey Mouse suddenly ran over and called your name to say hello to you, don't be too surprised, this is the powerful power of the Internet of Things.Internet of Things technology architecture
Generally speaking, when talking about the Internet of Things, we divide the system architecture into three layers. The bottom is the sensing layer, which can capture, collect and sense the relevant information needed in our application. For example, we want to know the current traffic conditions in the city to provide more route options for passers-by, but how do we collect traffic conditions? There are many methods, such as installing a camera at each intersection, the camera transmits the real-time traffic to the cloud to the back end, and then accumulates the real-time information for analysis; the other is to install the sensor on the road, as long as the car passes, there is a unit time How many cars pass through here, you can know how many cars are on the road, and this road is blocked.
It can be seen from this that the Internet of Things has a close relationship with massive data. At the bottom of the Internet of Things architecture is the Internet of Everything. The purpose is to capture and sense data. In the process, a very large amount of data is collected, but To screen out the data that is useful to us, we must go through the process of collecting and processing analysis, because the collection and analysis of data plays a very important role in the application architecture of the entire Internet of Things. Today, the application of the Internet of Things is mostly based on smart cities, including the environmental protection, transportation, energy, logistics, medical care, and smart buildings required in the city.International Internet of Things Application Case
The city of Santander in Spain promotes the application of IoT in the Internet, which is driven by many aspects, such as intelligent traffic, smart stop signs or smooth traffic of road traffic, parking space detection and so on. In addition, the environment around the smart building includes the temperature and humidity of the park flowerbed, as well as the condition of the street light. The switch of the street light can also sense the brightness of the sky through the sensor. It can also be used as the basis for judging the switch light. Noise, temperature and humidity to determine the air quality, or install sensors on the road, by collecting traffic information on the road, to provide the basis for the choice of passers-by.
There is also a smart meter installed in 270,000 homes in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. The purpose of smart meters is to make the power situation available. The benefits are not only to save meter reading operations, but also to provide power companies with power regulation. In Beijing, the summer is very hot, and everyone spends a lot of time, so the distribution of electricity is very important.
At this time, the digital electric meter can be used for power regulation; the excess electricity in the A area can be moved to the B area, which can meet the peak demand and achieve the appropriate amount of power generation, saving power generation.Future opportunities and challenges
The Internet of Things is a strategic opportunity for China's industry to enhance its soft power, and the actual application is also very helpful. In the case of smart cities, whether it is energy, transportation, food, medical care or industrial type, if we do promote it, we can use a large-scale application service to introduce and indirectly drive the transformation of China's industrial structure, that is, from manufacturing. From the perspective of application services, we will promote the integration of the entire application service and system in China.
There are still many challenges and problems in the IoT architecture today. If there is no problem, how can there be a chance? Because there are still problems, many places have to be solved through our innovative ideas. For example, the security of the network, the power consumption of the sensing device, the problem of power supply in the installation site, the lack of standardization, the high cost, etc., are full of challenges, and of course, full of opportunities.Conclusion
The future development of the Internet of Things has great potential, and countries all over the world have invested in this field and as a strategic industry. However, the business model of the Internet of Things is very important. At present, there are many good applications that rely on the government to pay for it. Once the government stops supporting, many applications may be difficult to implement, so there is an opportunity for everyone to think about how to promote its business model. Most of the Internet of Things applications are launched from the government's applications, from public applications to industry, to homes and consumers. In addition, when pushing to the general consumer and family, the part of these innovative applications should consider people's usage habits and behaviors, and many emerging applications will involve legal issues. This part also needs discussion, but I believe that the Internet of Things will be in the future. Ten years will still have a very large potential opportunity.
Triangular prisms are optically transparent bodies with triangular cross-sections. It is an optical instrument with a triangular cross-section made of transparent materials. It is a kind of dispersive prism, which can cause the polychromatic light to be dispersed when passing through the prism.
Light enters from one side of the prism and exits from the other side. The outgoing light will be deflected toward the bottom surface (the third side). The deflection angle is related to the refractive index of the prism, the apex angle and the incident angle of the prism.
White light is a polychromatic light composed of various monochromatic lights. The same medium has different refractive indexes for different colors of light, so the speed of different colors of light propagating in the same medium will be different.
Because the same medium has different refractive indexes for various monochromatic lights, according to the law of refraction, the deflection angle of each monochromatic light will also be different. Therefore, the white light passes through the prism to separate the monochromatic lights, forming seven colors of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and purple, that is, dispersion.
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